时间：<2020-06-06 21:26:31 作者：lX5吨加油车XUB 浏览量：9777
The safety, simplicity, and reliable action of hydraulic machinery has already led to its extensive employment for moving and lifting weights, and it is fair to assume that the importance and success of this invention fully entitle it to be classed as one of the most important that has been made in mechanical engineering during fifty years past. The application of hydraulic force in operating the machinery used in the processes for steel Bessemer manufacture, is one of the best examples to illustrate the advantages and principles of the hydraulic system. Published drawings and descriptions of Bessemer steel plant explain this hydraulic machinery.Movements come next in order, and consist of a reciprocating cutting movement of the tools or material, a feed movement to regulate the cutting action, and a longitudinal movement of the rack, graduated to pitch or space, the distance between the teeth.
In the manufacture of machines, there are usually so many sizes and modifications, that drawings should assist and determine in a large degree the completeness of classification and record. Taking the manufacture of machine tools, for example: we cannot well say, each time they are to be spoken of, a thirty-six inch lathe without screw and gearing, a thirty-two inch lathe with screw and gearing, a forty-inch lathe triple geared or double geared, with a twenty or thirty foot frame, and so on. To avoid this it is necessary to assume symbols for machines of different classes, consisting generally of the letters of the alphabet, qualified by a single number as an exponent to designate capacity or different modifications. Assuming, in the case of engine lathes, A to be the symbol for lathes of all sizes, then those of different capacity and modification can be represented in the drawings and records as A1, A2, A3, A4, and so on, requiring but two characters to indicate a lathe of any kind. These symbols should be marked in large plain letters on the left-hand lower corner of sheets, so that the manager, workman, or any one else, can see at a glance what the  drawings relate to. This symbol should run through the time-book, cost account, sales record, and be the technical name for machines to which it applies; in this way machines will always be spoken of in the works by the name of their symbol.
It is not intended to claim that this platen-reversing motion cannot, like any other mechanical movement, be resolved mathematically, but that the mechanical conditions are so obscure and the invention made at a time that warrants the supposition of accidental discovery.
First I will notice that among our many books upon mechanical subjects there are none that seem to be directed to the instruction of apprentice engineers; at least, there are none directed to that part of a mechanical education most difficult to acquire, a power of analysing and deducing conclusions from commonplace matters.Fifth.—Shrinkage; the allowance that has to be made for the contraction of castings in cooling, in other words, the difference between the size of a pattern and the size of the casting. This is a simple matter apparently, which may be provided for in allowing a certain amount of shrinkage in all directions, but when the inequalities of shrinkage both as to time and degree are taken into account, the allowance to be made becomes a problem of no little complication.
In machinery the ruling form is cylindrical; in structures other than machinery, those which do not involve motion, the ruling form is rectangular.It will be found that information of improvements and mechanical progress that a learner may gather from serial publications can always be exchanged for special knowledge in his intercourse with skilled workmen, who have not the opportunity or means of reading for themselves; and what an apprentice may read and learn in an hour can often be "exchanged" for experimental knowledge that has cost years to acquire.There is, however, this to be remembered, that the considerations which more especially balance premiums—such as a term at draughting, designing, and office service—may be mainly acquired by self-effort, while the practical knowledge of moulding, forging, and fitting cannot; and an apprentice who has good natural capacity, may, if industrious, by the aid of books and such opportunities as usually exist, qualify himself very well without including the premium departments in his course.
It is a matter of courtesy in the usages of a shop, and one of expediency to a learner, to ask questions from those who are presumed to be best informed on the subject to which the questions relate; and it is equally a matter of courtesy to ask questions of different workmen, being careful, however, never to ask two different persons the same question, nor questions that  may call out conflicting answers.A milling tool with twenty edges should represent as much wearing capacity as a like number of separate tools, and may be said to equal twenty duplicate tools; hence, in cutting grooves, notches, or similar work, a milling tool is equivalent to a large number of duplicate single tools, which cannot be made or set with the same truth; so that milling secures accuracy and duplication, objects which are in many cases more important than speed.
In speaking of the mechanical knowledge to be gained, and of the privileges afforded for learners in engineering-works in a general way, it must, of course, be assumed that such works afford full facilities for learning some branch of work by the best practice and in the most thorough manner. Such establishments are, however, graded from the highest class, on the best branches of work, where a premium would be equitable, down  to the lowest class, performing only inferior branches of work, where there can be little if any advantage gained by serving an apprenticeship.In sketches and drawings made for practice, such as are not intended for the shop, it is suggested that metrical scales be employed; it will not interfere with feet and inches, and will prepare the mind for the introduction of this system of lineal measurement, which may in time be adopted in England and America, as it has been in many other countries.The analogy between steam-power and water-power is therefore quite complete. Water is in both cases the medium through which power is obtained; evaporation is also the leading principle in both, the main difference being that in the case of steam-power the force employed is directly from the expansion of water by heat, and in water-power the force is an indirect result of expansion of water by heat.
Considered as a process, forging may be said to relate to shaping malleable material by blows or compression when it is rendered soft by heating. So far as hand-tools and the ordinary hand operations in forging, there can be nothing said that will be of much use to a learner. In all countries, and for centuries past, hand implements for forging have remained quite the same; and one has only to visit any machine forging-shop to see samples and types of standard tools. There is no use in describing tongs, swages, anvils, punches, and chisels, when there is nothing in their form nor use that may not be seen at a glance; but tools and machines for the application of motive power in forging processes deserve more careful notice.The duplicate system has gradually made its way in locomotive engineering, and will no doubt extend to the whole of  railway equipment, as constants for dimensions are proved and agreed upon.
A learner will no doubt wonder why sand is used for moulding, instead of some more adhesive material like clay. If he is not too fastidious for the experiment, and will apply a lump of damp moulding sand to his mouth and blow his breath through the mass, the query will be solved. If it were not for the porous nature of sand-moulds they would be blown to pieces as soon as the hot metal entered them; not only because of the mechanical expansion of the gas, but often from explosion by combustion. Gas jets from moulds, as may be seen at any time when castings are poured, will take fire and burn the same as illuminating gas.Lathes in common use for machine fitting are screw-cutting engine lathes, lathes for turning only, double-geared, single-geared, and back-geared lathes, lathes for boring, hand-lathes, and pulley-turning lathes; also compound lathes with double heads and two tool carriages.