时间：<2020-06-04 07:02:47 作者：DH心心相印广场舞vrg 浏览量：9777
(1.) What should determine the social rank of industrial callings?—(2.) Why have the physical sciences and mechanic arts achieved so honourable a position?—(3.) How may the general object of the engineering arts be described?—(4.) What is the difference between science and art as the terms are generally employed in connection with practical industry?CHAPTER XIV. HYDRAULIC APPARATUS FOR TRANSMITTING POWER.
At this point will occur one of those mechanical problems which requires what may be called logical solution. The valve must be moved by the drop; there is no other moving mechanism available; the valve and drop must besides be connected, to insure coincident action, yet the valve requires to move when the drop is still. Proceeding inductively, it is clear that a third agent must be introduced, some part moved by the drop, which will in turn move the valve, but this intermediate agent so arranged that it may continue to move after the hammer-drop has stopped.
A learner who goes from gearing and shafts to steam and hydraulics, from machine tools to cranes and hoisting machinery, will not accomplish much. The best way is to select at first an easy subject, one that admits of a great range of modification, and if possible, one that has not assumed a standard form of construction. Bearings and supports for shafts and spindles,  is a good subject to begin with.
The title of a drawing is a feature that has much to do with its appearance, and the impression conveyed to the mind of an observer. While it can add nothing to the real value of a drawing, it is so easy to make plain letters, that the apprentice is urged to learn this as soon as he begins to draw; not to make fancy letters, nor indeed any kind except plain block letters, which can be rapidly laid out and finished, and consequently employed to a greater extent. By drawing six parallel lines, making five spaces, and then crossing them with equidistant lines, the points and angles in block letters are determined; after a little practice, it becomes the work of but a few minutes to put down a title or other matter on a drawing so that it can be seen and read at a glance in searching for sheets or details.
Fifth. The cost of special adaptation, and the usual inconvenience of fitting combination machines when their parts operate independently, often equals and sometimes exceeds what is saved in framing and floor space.Machines may be defined in general terms as agents for converting, transmitting, and applying power, or motion and force, which constitute power. By machinery the natural forces are utilised, and directed to the performance of operations where human strength is insufficient, when natural force is cheaper, and when the rate of movement exceeds what the hands can perform. The term "agent" applied to machines conveys a true idea of their nature and functions.
Standard tools for turning, drilling, planing, boring, and so on, have been changed but little during twenty years past, and are likely to remain quite the same in future. A lathe or a planing-machine made by a first-class establishment twenty years ago has, in many cases, the same capacity, and is worth nearly as much in value at the present time as machine tools of modern construction—a test that more than any other determines their comparative efficiency and the true value of the improvements that have been made. The plans of the framing for machine tools have been altered, and many improvements in details have been added; yet, upon the whole, it is safe to assume, as before said, that standard tools for metal-cutting have reached a state of improvement that precludes any radical changes in future, so long as the operations in metal-cutting remain the same.5. The loss of power during transmission.
The force of gravity acts only in one direction—vertically, so that the main force of hoisting and handling machinery which opposes gravity must also act vertically, while the horizontal movement of objects may be accomplished by simply overcoming the friction between them and the surfaces on which they move. This is seen in practice. A force of a hundred pounds may move a loaded truck, which it would require tons to lift; hence the horizontal movements of material may be easily accomplished by hand with the aid of trucks and rollers, so long as it is moved on level planes; but if a weight has to be raised even a single inch by reason of irregularity in floors, the difference between overcoming frictional contact and opposing gravity is at once apparent.
Standard gauging implements were introduced about the year 1840, by the celebrated Swiss engineer, John G. Bodmer, a man who for many reasons deserves to be considered as the founder of machine tool manufacture. He not only employed gauges in his works to secure duplicate dimensions, but also invented and put in use many other reforms in manipulation; among these may be mentioned the decimal or metrical division of measures, a system of detail drawings classified by symbols, the mode of calculating wheels by diametric pitch, with many other things which characterise the best modern practice.